# Syllabus For Physics

I. UNITS & DIMENSIONS - MEASUREMENT OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES:

• Fundamental units in the CGS & SI systems - Definitions of SI Units - Supplementary and derived units - Dimensions of Physical quantities - Application of Dimensional Analysis - uses - examples - Limitations of dimensional analysis
• Errors in measurements - variation and average values - Number of observations - Ideas of standard deviation and mean deviation- Systematic and random errors - Significant figures and rounding off - Evaluation of percentage of errors.

II. ELEMENTS OF VECTORS:

• Addition and subtraction of Vectors - Laws of addition of vectors - Equal and null vectors - Unit vectors - Unit vectors in Cartesian co-ordinate system - Position vector and its magnitude - Parallelogram law of vectors - Expression for the resultant vector
• Triangle law and polygon law of vectors - Application to relative motion of a boat in a river - Multiplication of a vector with scalar. Scalar product with Examples of work and energy. Vector product with examples of torque and angular momentum. Vector and Scalar products of unit vectors

III. . KINEMATICS - DYNAMICS:

• Equations of motion in a straight line under uniform acceleration - Equation of motion of freely falling body, vertically projected body from ground and from a height - Two dimensional motion - Projectiles with examples - Path of a projectile - maximum height, time of flight and range.
• Newton's Laws of motion - Concepts of inertia, momentum force, impulse and types of forces - Collision of two bodies in one dimension - one body at rest - two bodies moving in the same and opposite directions - Elastic and inelastic collisions - Coefficient of restitution

IV. WORK, POWER AND ENERGY:

• Definition and units - Expressions for P.E. & K.E. - Work-energy theorem - Law of conservation of energy.

V. CENTRE OF MASS:

• Definition - Co-ordinates of center of mass - Velocity, Acceleration - Characteristics of center of mass - Examples in the case of two dimensional motions - Laws of motion of center of mass - Explosion

VI. FRICTION:

• Causes of friction - Static, Kinetic and rolling friction - laws of friction - expressions for acceleration of a body on smooth and rough inclined planes (without rolling).

VII. ROTATORY MOTION:

• Rotatory motion - Relationships between quantities in rotatory and linear motions - Centripetal and centrifugal forces - Concepts of torque and couple - Relation between angular momentum and torque - Moment of inertia - Rotational kinetic energy - Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems - Expressions for the Moment of inertia of a thin rod, sphere, circular ring, uniform disc., cylinder and rectangular lamina - Conservation of angular momentum with examples - Motion in a vertical circle

VIII. GRAVITATION:

• Kepler's laws of planetary motion - Newton's universal law of gravitation - Expression for the relation between g & G - Variation of 'g' with height, depth, latitude and local conditions. Inertial and gravitational masses - Escape velocity and orbital velocity - geo-statonary satellites and their uses

IX. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION:

• Definitions and examples - Expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period and frequency - Expressions for the period of a simple pendulum and loaded spring - Force constant - Expressions for the KE & PE of a body in SHM

X. ELASTICITY:

• Elasticity & plasticity - Stress - Strain, Hookes law - Modulii of elasticity (Y,n,K) - Poisson's ratio (s) - Relation between Y,n,K and s - Behaviour of wire under gradually increasing load - elastic fatigue - expression for strain energy - experimental determination of Y by Searle's apparatus.

XI. SURFACE TENSION:

• Surface tension - Definition and examples - Molecular Phenomenon - Angle of contact - Capillarity with examples in nature - Experimental determination of Surface Tension by capillary rise method with necessary theory - variation of Surface Tension with temperature - Expressions for excess pressure inside a drop and a bubble.

XII. HYDRODYNAMICS:

• Principle of Buoyancy - Pressure in a fluid - Bernoulli's theorem - Aerodynamic lift and motion of spinning ball

XIII. VISCOSITY:

• Stream line flow - Explanation of viscosity - Poiseuille's equation - determination of co-efficient of Viscosity - Variation with temperature

XIV. EXPANSION OF SOLIDS - LIQUIDS - GASES:

• Three coefficients of expansion of solids their inter relationship - Determination of coefficient of linear expansion by mechanical lever method - Application to Bimetallic thermostat
• Coefficients of real and apparent expansion of liquids and the relation between them - Variation of density with temperature - Anomalous expansion of water and its effects - Experimental determination of real and apparent coefficients by Regnault's method and specific gravity bottle
• Volume and pressure coefficients of expansion of gases - Experimental determination of volume and pressure coefficients by Regnault's & Jolly's bulb apparatus - Absolute zero - Kelvin's scale of temperature - Boyle's law and Charle's law - Ideal gas equation

XV. THERMODYNAMICS:

• Definition of calorie, thermal capacity, specific heat and latent heats - Law of mixtures - Problems relating to specific heats and latent heats and law of mixtures - Joule's law and Mechanical equivalent of Heat (J). Three phases of matter and Triple point of water - Definition of specific heats of gases Cp & Cv - Isothermal and Adiabatic processes - Relationships between P,V & T - External work done by an ideal gas during expansion - Internal energy - Statements and explanation of Zeroeth law, First and Second laws of thermodynamics - Relation Cp-Cv=R.

• Nature and properties of thermal Radiation - Prevost's theory of heat exchanges - Emissive and absorptive powers - Black body radiation - Kirchoff's law and its application - Newton's law of cooling - Laws of Black body radiation - Stefan's law, Weien's displacement law and Planck's formula (qualitative treatment only)

XVII. SOUND:

• Propagation of sound - Wave equation -Velocity of sound in solids, liquids and gases - Variation of velocity of sound in gases with temperature, pressure, density and humidity. Natural and Forced vibrations - Resonance with examples - Formation of stationary waves in stretched strings - Laws of transverse waves along stretched strings - Experimental verification by sonometer - Beats - Definition and explanation (Theory only) - Doppler effect - Formulae for apparent frequency in specific cases - Applications and limitations of Doppler effect

XVIII. GEOMETRICAL OPTICS:

• Determination of velocity of light by Focault's rotating mirror method - Its significance - Critical angle - Total internal reflection - Application to optical fibres.
• Lens maker's formula 1/f=(m -1) (1/R1+ 1/R2) - Defects of images - Spherical and Chromatic aberrations and their elimination (Qualitative treatment) - Construction of Ramsden's and Huygens eye pieces. Dispersion of light - Formula for refractive index of prism - Pure and impure spectra - arrangement to obtain pure spectrum - Description and working of spectrometer - Determination of angle of a prism - Angle of minimum deviation and Refractive index - Dispersive power of a prism.
• Different kinds of spectra - Emission spectra-Line, Band and Continuous spectra- Absorption spectra - their significance - Fraunhoffer lines and their significance

XIX. PHYSICAL OPTICS:

• Nature of light - Newton's corpuscular theory - Huygen's wave theory - Electromagnetic theory Quantum Theory (Elementary ideas only) - Interference - Coherent sources - Young's double slit experiment - Phenomenon of diffraction - Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction - Diffraction at straight edge ( qualitative treatment) - Polarization - Concepts of polarization - Production of plane polarized light by reflection and double refraction (Polaroids).

XX. MAGNETISM:

• Magnetic pole strength - Inverse square law - Magnetic induction B - Formulae for magnetic induction on axial and equatorial line of a bar magnet and a very short bar magnet - Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Magnetic moment of a magnet - Tangent law - Deflection magnetometer - Comparison of magnetic moments in Tan A and Tan B positions by equal distance method and null method - Verification of Inverse square law - vibration magnetometer - Experimental determination of M and BH.
• Magnetic materials Dia, Para, Ferro, Antiferro and Ferrimagnetism - their properties - Electron theory of magnetism (qualitative treatment) - Permeability and Susceptibility (concepts only).

XXI. ELECTRO STATICS:

• Coulomb's law - permittivity- Concept of electric field - Electric lines of force. Force on a charge in an electric filed ( F=Eq) - Electric potential - Potential due to a point charge - Potential energy of a point charge in a uniform electric field - Electron volt - Relation between E and V ( E =v/d) Capacitance, Dielectric constant - Parallel plate capacitor - Formula for Capacitance - Effect of di- electric on capacity (expressions only) - Formulae for resultant capacitance when capacitors are connected in series and parallel - Energy stored in a capacitor - Effect of dielectric on the energy - Types of capacitors and their uses.

XXII. CURRENT ELECTRICITY:

• Ohm's law - Specific resistance - Conductance - Temperature dependence of resistivity - Thermistor - Emf of a cell - Internal resistance and back emf
• Kirchoff's laws - Statement and explanation - Application to Wheatstone's bridge for its balance condition - Metre bridge - Principle of potentiometer - Comparison of emf's of cells. Determination of internal resistance of a primary cell.

XXIII. THERMO ELECTRICITY:

• Seebeck effect - Peltier and Thomson effects and their coefficients - Variation of thermo emf with temperature - Neutral and Inversion temperatures. Application of thermo couples.

XXIV. ELECTRO MAGNETICS:

• Oersted's experiment - Biot Savart law - The Tesla Ampere law - Magnetic field near a long straight wire and at the center of a circular coil carrying current (expressions only) - Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field (F=Q V X B ) - Force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic filed - Force between two straight parallel conductors carrying current - Definition of Ampere - Fleming's left hand rule - Force and Torque on current loop in a magnetic filed - Tangent Galvanometer expression for the current construction and working of a moving coil galvanometer - Shunt and its uses - Conversion of moving coil galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter. Comparison of Moving Coil Galvanometer with Tangent Galvanometer - Electro magnetic induction - magnetic flux and induced emf. - Faraday and Lenz laws - Fleming's right hand rule - Self and Mutual inductances - Henry.

XXV. ATOMIC PHYSICS:

• Discovery of electron - e/ m electron by Thomson's method - Charge of an electron by Millikan's oil drop method (Principle only) Photo electric effect - Laws of photoelectric emission - Einstein's photo electric equation and its experimental verification by Millikan's method - Photoelectric cells and their uses.
• X-ray spectra - Mosley's law and its importance - Compton effect - Dual nature of matter - De Borglie's hypothesis (concepts only)

XXVI. NUCLEAR PHYSICS:

• Composition of nucleus - Nuclear forces - Mass defect and binding energy - Explanations with examples - Discovery of neutron - Nuclear fission - Chain reaction - Principle and working of a Nuclear reactor - Nuclear fusion - Energy of sun and stars (Carbon - Nitrogen cycle and Proton- Proton cycle) -Elementary particles.

XXVII. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES:

• Junction Diode - Depletion layer - Barrier potential- Forward bias and Reverse bias - Current - Voltage characteristics - Junction diode as half wave and full wave rectifiers - Zener diode as voltage regulator - Transistors - pnp and npn transistors - Transistor characteristics - Transistor as common emitter amplifier (Block diagram and qualitative treatment only)

## ekdam

ekdam bakvasssssssssssssssssssssssss